Mass Limitations | JAA ATPL Exam Questions.

Solved Questions on 031 Mass and Balance (Aeroplane)
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Mass Limitations | JAA ATPL Exam Questions.

Postby CaptainMFT » 16 Sep 2016 02:42

:?:
If the fuel load of a large aircraft was given in litres, but was entered on the load sheet in kilograms, how would this affect the expected handling of the aircraft?

a) the stick force required on rotation will be lighter <-- Correct
b) the stick force required on rotation will be heavier
c) the stick force required would be the same in both cases
d) the stick force required would be the same in both cases but the rate of climb will be less

Fuel is lighter than water. A volume of fuel typically weighs about 70-80% of the equivalent volume of water. e.g. 100 litres of water is 100 Kg but 100 litres of aviation fuel is 100 x 0.8 = 80 Kg. If for example the fuel was supposed to be 30,000 litres then actually its weight would be less than 30,000 Kg i.e. 30,000 x 0.8 = 24,000 Kg. If accidentally 30,000 Kg instead of 30,000 litres (which was 24,000 Kg) is entered on the load sheet then the aircraft according to the load sheet will be 6000 Kg heavier than actual. In other words actual aircraft mass will be lighter as compared to the load sheet.



:?:
Fuel loaded onto an aeroplane is 15,400 kg but is erroneously entered into the load and trim sheet as 14,500 kg. This error is not detected by the flight crew but they will notice that:

a) V1 will be reached sooner than expected
b) speed at un-stick will be higher than expected <-- Correct
c) V1 will be increased
d) the aeroplane will rotate much earlier than expected

Preparation (speed calculation etc) will be for a lighter weight whereas the aircraft will be heavier than planned. Acceleration will be slower and speeds will be higher than expected.



:?:
In order to provide an adequate BUFFET BOUNDARY at the commencement of the cruise a speed of 1.3 Vs is used. At a mass of 120,000 kg this is a CAS of 180 knots. If the mass of the aeroplane is increased to 135,000 kg the value of 1.3Vs will be:

a) increased to 202 knots but since the same angle of attack is used, drag and range will remain the same
b) unaffected as Vs always occurs at the same angle of attack
c) increased to 191 knots, drag will decrease and air distance per kg of fuel will increase
d) increased to 191 knots drag will increase and air distance per kg of fuel will decrease <-- Correct

Weight increment = 135000/120000 = 1.125

Stall speed is proportional to square root of weight

Square root of 1.125 is 1.06

180 x 1.06 = 191 kts

Increase in weight increases the induced drag. Increase in drag decreases the range.



:?:
At maximum certificated take-off mass an aeroplane departs from an airfield which is not limiting for either take-off or landing masses. During initial climb the number one engine suffers a contained disintegration. An emergency is declared and the aeroplane returns to departure airfield for an immediate landing. The most likely result of this action will be:

a) a high threshold speed and possible undercarriage or other structural failure <-- Correct
b) a landing further along the runway than normal



:?:
An aeroplane, which is scheduled to fly an oceanic sector, is due to depart from a high altitude airport in the tropics at 1400 local time. The airport has an exceptionally long runway. Which of the following is most likely to be the limiting factor(s) in determining the take-off mass?

a) maximum certificated take-off mass
b) maximum zero fuel mass
c) altitude and temperature of the departure airfield <-- Correct
d) en route obstacle clearance requirements



:?:
An aircraft is about to depart on an oceanic sector from a high elevation airfield with an exceptionally long runway in the tropics at 1400 local time. The take offb mass is likely to be limited by:

a) MZFM
b) Obstacle limited mass
c) Maximum certified take-off mass
d) Climb limited mass <-- Correct



:?:
The maximum mass to which an aeroplane may be loaded, prior to engine start, is:

a) maximum certificated taxi (ramp) mass <-- Correct
b) maximum regulated taxi (ramp) mass



:?:
The mass displacement caused by landing gear extension:

a) does not create a longitudinal moment
b) creates a pitch-up longitudinal moment
c) creates a longitudinal moment in the direction (pitch-up or pitch-down) determined by the type of landing gear <-- Correct
d) creates a pitch-down longitudinal moment



:?:
The Maximum Structural Take-Off Mass is:

a) a limit which may not be exceeded for any take-off <-- Correct
b) a take-off limiting mass which is affected by the aerodrome altitude and temperature



:?:
The Maximum Zero Fuel Mass is: "a structural limit listed in the Flight Manual as a fixed value". 



:?:
To calculate the allowable take-off mass, the factors to be taken into account include:

a) the sum of the Maximum Landing Mass and the trip fuel <-- Correct
b) the sum of the Maximum Landing Mass and the fuel on board at take-off
c) the sum of the Maximum Zero Fuel Mass and the trip fuel
d) the Maximum Take-off Mass minus the trip fuel

The Allowable TOM is the lower of the following three:

i) Max Structural TOM Limit
ii) Max Landing Mass + Trip Fuel
iii) Max ZFW + Takeoff Fuel




:?:
Considering only structural limitation, on long distance flights (at the aeroplane maximum range), the traffic load is normally limited by:

a) The maximum zero fuel mass plus the take-off mass
b) The maximum zero fuel mass
c) The maximum take-off mass <-- Correct
d) The maximum landing mass



:?:
Considering only structural limitations, on very short legs with minimum take-off fuel, the traffic load is normally limited by:

a) Maximum landing mass
b) Maximum zero fuel mass <-- Correct
c) Maximum take-off mass
d) Actual landing mass

These questions can be understood from an example. If:

DOM = 100,000 Kg
MZFW = 120,000 Kg
MTOM = 140,000 Kg
Total Fuel Capacity = 25,000 Kg

The Maximum traffic load that can be loaded is MZFW-DOM = 20,000 Kg

For a short sector the fuel requirement is not much e.g. lets say it is 15,000 Kg.

Thus traffic load can be loaded until it reaches its Max zero fuel weight limit.

Putting in the values TOM = 100,000 + 20,000 + 15,000 = 135,000 Kg i.e. within limit.

Now lets say the flight is re-routed and becomes longer than before.

This means more fuel e.g. lets say it requires full tank capacity of 25,000 Kg.

Now the TOM = 100,000 + 20,000 + 25,000 = 145,000 Kg i.e. 5000 Kg above max takeoff mass limit.

Thus to be within the max takeoff mass limit 5000 Kg of traffic load has to be off-loaded.

i.e. TOM = 100,000 + 15,000 + 25,000 = 140,000 (within limit).

So for a longer flight traffic load does not reach its Max zero fuel weight limit, it is limited by the maximum takeoff mass limit.



:?:
Which of the following statements is correct?

a) The Maximum Zero Fuel Mass ensures that the centre of gravity remains within limits after the uplift of fuel
b) The Maximum Landing Mass of an aeroplane is restricted by structural limitations, performance limitations and the strength of the runway <-- Correct
c) The Maximum Take-off Mass is equal to the maximum mass when leaving the ramp
d) The Basic Empty Mass is equal to the mass of the aeroplane excluding traffic load and usable fuel but including the crew



:?:
The maximum taxi (ramp) mass is governed by: "structural considerations". 



:?:
If the maximum structural landing mass is exceeded:

a) the aircraft will be unable to get airborne
b) the undercarriage could collapse on landing <-- Correct
c) no damage will occur providing the aircraft is within the regulated landing mass
d) no damage will occur providing the aircraft is within the performance limited landing mass



:?:
To calculate a usable take-off mass, the factors to be taken into account include:

a) Maximum landing mass augmented by fuel on board at take-off
b) Maximum landing mass augmented by the fuel burn <-- Correct
c) Maximum zero fuel mass augmented by the fuel burn
d) Maximum take-off mass decreased by the fuel burn

It's about box B. 



:?:
The responsibility for determination of the mass of OPERATING MASSES and CREW MEMBERS included within the Dry Operating Mass lies with: "the operator"



:?:
The maximum aircraft mass excluding all usable fuel is:

a) fixed and listed in the Aircraft Operating Manual <-- Correct
b) variable and is set by the payload for the trip
c) fixed by the physical size of the fuselage and cargo holds
d) variable and depends on the actual fuel load for the trip



:?:
The maximum certificated taxi (or ramp) mass is that mass to which an aeroplane may be loaded prior to engine start, it is: "a fixed value which is listed in the Flight Manual". 



:?:
In relation to an aeroplane, the term BASIC EMPTY MASS includes the mass of the aeroplane structure complete with its power plants, systems, furnishings and other items of equipment considered to be an integral part of the particular aeroplane configuration. Its value is: "found in the latest version of the weighing schedule as corrected to allow for modifications". 



:?:
The aircraft basic mass and CG position is found in:

a) The weighing schedule in the Aircraft Flight Manual and the aeroplane must be re-weighed if equipment change causes a change in mass or balance
b) The weighing schedule in the Aircraft Flight Manual and is adjusted to take account of any mass changes <-- Correct

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Good luck,
CaptainMFT.

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